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By Sergey raslanov

      The phone rang, as it seemed to me being only half-awake in the early morning.
      "Araslanov Sergey, this is Borisenko of "Alen" company. I'm calling from Friedrichshafen airshow. Are you going to "AERO`99"? Will you need any help or information, or maybe booklets?"
      "Sure, Dmitriy, it would be nice if you take photos, booklets. By the way, if you need any help, you can find the display of "Flight Design". There must be the guys of "Ost-West Consulting" from Kherson. You can find them near their "CT". Or look for Kiyiv residents near "A-22". It has been displayed by German "Ful GmbH". You'll probably find someone from "Aeros" company. Or you may go to Yak-18T stand from Myachkovo. They will tell where to find Rodion Nicolyan from Moscow. He promised to send us materials from the airshow as well.(What else can a man being fast asleep only 5 minutes ago say?).
      In the morning I couldn't recall the night talk without a smile. One the one hand it was so nice of a person to give you a hand of his own accord. Quite easy to understand the motives of the night call. When on business in Germany, I could hardly keep myself away from dialing some friend's number using the telephone booth, placed in front of the airclub. But then, six months ago, in Schopenhagen, several dozens of well-known planes were placed at the stand. But now hundreds of them strike your eye. No wonder that it makes you sleepless and you feel a great desire to let the cat out of the bag. But all this is in Friedrichshafen. As for Kharkiv I have to get all materials ready for the April issue of "General Aviation". And there is a chance to be issued on time, before May 15, right before the airshow is over our designer will be able to get all the wordings back. If there are no night calls and any unforeseen circumstances. In general I had to work and sank down into the problems of span design calculations, in comparative analyses of helicopter control system, the theory of flapping flight. I completely forgot about my midnight recommendations to the "Alen" company Director
      But soon an inter-city telephone call, having taken me back to "AERO`99"events some hours later, refreshed the words in my memory.
      "Sergey, this is Sasha Bondar. I'm calling from Friedrichshafen. Here some Germans sell your journals. Your acquaintances come up and ask to prepare information for "GA". What are you interested in?.."
      Either because of all these events took place on the Proletariat World Leader birthday or sitting in front of the computer too long, I felt that my lungs got filled not with usual air but they were about to burst out of delight. My eyes got wet and I jumped up with the desire to get on the top of my chair. I couldn't help but crying out "Yes!" with the gesture, typical for American action movies. What wonderful people, caring ones!
      But deep inside my Ego made malicios remarks, "Wonderful! Sure, wonderful, they are there, in Germany, observing everything themselves. But you, notice, couldn't" For some time in a complicated mixture of feelings aroused by international calls there was a fight between delight, jealousy or envy. But after this sleepless night the excited consciousness of the editor was filled with the only disturbing thought, "Why all of them are calling? What about our reporter in Friedrichshafen? Why does he keep silent? How is he there with TV and photo cameras and without any translator?
      Actually, he didn't feel like talking over the phone. He worked doing slides, shooting a video; gathering booklets. At first it was supposed he would go with a partner. But as it often happens, everything changed at the last moment, and he had to go alone. How does it feel like being alone at the airshow? The one who at least once proved to get in such a jolly mess will be able to understand it. But our reporter in Friedrichshafen appeared to be a hard nut to crack and thanks him there is a pile of booklet, weighing several pounds, a dozen of excellent slide films and a three-hour video tape recording of the show. So much to see and so much to read... In general, our dear reader, our reporter (his modesty had him ask not to name him) made a generous present. Everything displayed in Friedrichshafen will be published not only in "GA" but also in a new journal of Russia which will show up in Moscow soon.
      But what exactly did our man in Friedrichshafen see, having visited General Aviation show.
      It's quite hard to describe everything in one article. That's why let's start with general impression on "AERO", which may be interesting to our new reader (we wrote about airshows in Friedrichshafen in May issues of "GA" in 1995 and 1997) a little resort town in the South of Germany, cozily situated on the banks of Boden Lake, becomes a "GA" world center twice a year.
      Designers and pilots, sellers and buyers, professionals and amateurs (dilettantes) interested in different aircraft equipment beginning from paramotors to business jet are flocking together here.
      Perhaps the most significant difference of "AERO'99" from the previous shows in Friedrichshafen was much greater concentration of military aircraft than ever before especially among the passenger aircraft. If in the previous years camouflage colors could be mostly seen on the historical airplanes and replicas it was impossible to pass by combat aircraft of NATO this time. Thanks God, they didn't prevail, but there was no way to leave them unnoticed.
      By and large everything was as usually. Unlike MAKC, where all the technical equipment was placed along the runway several km long, most of the aircraft and helicopters at "AERO" are concentrated along the whimsically winding path, resembling airdrome for carting up from the air. Nevertheless German people got used to comfort and the guests of the display Exposition used compact bikes to move about the airdrome. So unlike Zhukovsky visitors' feet must have felt much better than they could have been after several hours spent at the airshow.
      The participants felt much easier at the stand as well. Besides many planes you could find trailers to shelter from the sun, bad weather (one of the days seemed endlessly spoiled by rain), from too persistent questions, and discuss the terms of contracts with a potential Buyer. A great number of snow -white and blue tents and marquees pointed not only to the number of kiosks but also to the owners' care about their vehicles. It is obvious, the Europeans, who store their aircraft equipment in hangars, but not in the open space, can't simply bear its standing under the sky. That's why, two- and tree-seater planes with cockpit canopies and hoods rested in the shadow of the wide tents (G109B "GROB", "STORM400","Taifun 17E", etc.). And beer-fanciers, dachshund sausages lovers as well as air sights made themselves comfortable at the ordinary tables, situated near the fence, or in the stalls on the special platform. Carts

      Aircraft pavilions are decorated traditionally for "AERO". Large pictures forming peculiar background at which airplanes look much striking are used at the most companies displays. Some apparatuses are hanging over or fixed at the special pylons, what makes spectaculars feel movement, action. Bright and audacious coloring of airplanes high quality of the surface, pleasant green and blue floor covering, various nuances of the display appearance get into festive mood. Airplanes stand "Dimension ZuLu" and HB 204 "Tornado" Undoubtedly, a great attention of the visitors was attracted by the display devoted to Mathias Rust's landing on the Red Square in 1986. In the corner of a large hall behind the wire netting two walls and the floor were painted. On one side there was Rust's plane ("Cessna-172"), flying over, on the other one the Cremlin Wall with Towers. I don't know why such an idea sruck someone's head, but a fortune of money was spent on it. A little stage of a provincial theater could have been placed at the enclosed territory.


      In general there was much from the history of aviation in Friedrichshafen. Restored airplanes and perfectly built replicas pleased the audience and participants not only by appearence, but also by flight performance. Not taking into consideration NATO transport airplanes Swiss U-52, flying constantly at the airshow was probably one of the largest. No doubts, brightly red An-2 looked quite effective. "Ryan PT-22","Red Bull", a bunch of various biplanes, "Vampir" jet, one of the first STOLs "Storch" and other retroplanes rejoiced rich collector. It was great to see a video film made by Rodion with red-star Yaks: Yak-18a, Yak-52, Yak-55.Soviet Yaks
      In spite of all our respect for the history, "AERO" is an airshow of morden airplanes. It is impossible to describe everything gathered in Friedrichshafen. The production of all the companies, producing aircraft for general aviation: "Cessna", "Piper", "Beachcraft", "Mooney", "Aerocommander", "Aerospatiale", "Robin", "Pilatus", "GROB", "Extra", Storch "Dimona aircraft", "Zlin", PZL, "Ilyushin", "Technoavia", BeriyevAircraft ScientificTechnical Complex (Taganrog), could be found at the open stand. Ultralights, trikes, paramotors and other aircraft were placed in the pavilions.
      Among the light piston-engine airplanes single-engined"Extra 400" Walter Extra stood out. The company rented a separate parking place for its aircraft, where famous aerobaticcs EA-300, EA-330L all-composite single-engined "Extra 400" dispersed at the green carpet covering. Everything is extraordinary in this airplane: tubby fuselage, specially profiled high clean wing, retractible landing gear, resembling the design of F-16 undercarriage a little bit, quite spacious cabin in a very little fuselage when look from outside, morden instrument equipment, production technology. This airplane is one more example of a talented designer's step from simplicity to complexity.

Extra 400 Dash-board Cabin

Main aircraft performance characteristics of "Extra 400"
Engine typeMeasureTeledyne Continental TSIOL 550-C
Max powerHp350
Propeller type MTV-14D/195-30a
Number of blades 4
Propeller diameter1,95
Max takeoff weightKg2000
Empty weightKg1389
Wing span11,5
Aspect ratio 8,6
Cabin lengthM4,13
Cabin widthM1,39
Cabin heightM1,24
Fuel capacityL665
Maximum cruise speedKTAS(km/h)235 (435)
Maximum cruise rangeNM (km)2100 (3889)
Certified ceilingft (m)25000 (7622)
Maximum rate of climbft/min (m/sec)1400 (7,11)
Takeoff runM380
Landing runM270

      As interesting and revolutionary there was a four-seater full-composite SR-20 of American "Circus Design". In booklets and articles in different journals the airplane is called no less than the future of general aviation: high-speed, comfortable, safe with advanced cabin design. Besides it's rather cheap. The price of the standard version of this "complicated" aircraft is 171300 USD. For the upgrade to S-TEC System Thirty in "A" complectation you will have to pay additional 3650 USD. To get "B" category extra 17500 USD is provided for the upgrade (the total price will make up 188800 USD). Maximum cost of the airplane in "C" complectation is 204100 USD.

General view of "SR20" Dash-board Control knob Passenger cabin Parachute life-saving system

Main aircraft performance characteristics
of SR20 of "Cirrus Design"
Engine typeMeasureTeledyne Continental
Max powerHp200
Propeller type Hartzell
Propeller diameterInch (m)76 (1,93)
Max takeoff weightLbs (kg)2900 (1316)
Empty weightlbs (kg)1875 (851)
Payloadlbs (kg)1025 (465)
Number of seats  4
Wing spanFeet & inches (m)35 feet 7 inches (10,85)
Wing areaSq.m12,54
Concrete Wing loadKg/sq.m105
Start available power Hp/kg0,15
LengthFeet & inches (m)26 feet 3 inches (8,00)
HeightFeet & inches (m)9 feet 3 inches (2,82)
Cabin lengthInches (m)130 (3,3)
Cabin widthInches (m)49 (1,25)
Cabin heightinches (m)50 (1,27)
Fuel capacitygals/l (lbs/kg)60/227 (360/163)
Undercarriage Non retractable
Cruise speed (75% thrust)KTAS(km/h)160 (296)
Maximum cruise rangeNM (km)800 (1482)
Stall speedKIAS(km/h)57 (106)
Maximum climb rateft/min (m/sec)900 (4,57)
Takeoff runfeet (m)1310 (399)
Takeoff distancefeet (m)1865 (568)
Landing runfeet (m)1000 (305)
Landing distancefeet (m)1960 (597)

      The scheme of full-composite low-wing monoplane with ahigh aspect ratio wing is the most widespred among two-seater airplanes. German powered glider G109B of "GROB" company is regarded as the prototype of this scheme. Austrian HK-36 "Super Dimona" and Czech "Lambada" and "Zephyr" are very similar to G109B. It seems this family is going to enlarge by A210 "Aquila" of "Aquila Technische Entwicklungen GmbH" company. Although Czech airplanes are closer to ultralights, the Austrian is similar to light airplanes, the German one is somewhere between them. All three airplanes use JAR-VLA as a certification basis.

36 Super Dimona Lambada Zephyr 3D-model of -210

Comparable characteristics of HK-36 "Super Dimona", "Lambada", "Zephyr" and A210 "Aquila" airplanes
ParameterMeasureHK-36 "Super Dimona" TC (TTC) "Lambada"
UFM 11
"Zephyr" A210 "Aquila"
Wing spanM16,33 11,8 10,6 10,3
Wing areaSq.m  10,8 11,3 10,1
LengthM7,28 6,6 6,2 7,3
Empty weightKg555 (560) 270 245-285 490
Max takeoff weightKg770 450 450 750
Loadkg/sq.m  41,7 39,8 71,4
PayloadKg210 170 170 260
Tank capacityL77 40 (50) 60 120
Engine Rotax 912A3
(Rotax 914F3)
Rotax 912 Rotax 912UL Rotax 912S
Powerh.p.81 (100) 80 80 100
Available powerh.p/kg0,11 (0,13) 0,18 0,18 0.13
Max speedKm/h261 220 220 305
Max cruise speedKm/h200 (220)      
Cruise speedKm/h    140-180  
Economical speedKm/h    155  
Cruise speed (75% thrust)Km/h      240
Cruise speed (65% thrust)Km/h167 (196)      
Stall speed without flapsKm/h    78  
Min speed (stall speed with deflected flaps)Km/h  65 64 (81)
Fuel consumption on 65% thrust 18      
Climb rateM/sec4 (5,4) 5 5  
Takeoff runM201 (182)      
Takeoff distance (to 15 m)M338 (274)   120  
Landing distance(from 15 m)M    200  
Gliding speedM/sec1,17 1,3    
Finenes 27 20    
Range (75% thrust)Km    800 1380
Range (65% thrust)Km      1850
CeilingM      5000

      Probably, A-210 is still being developed. In booklets and journal articles 3D-models are widely used.(By the way, computer developments of light and ultralight airplanes are given in articles more often. This computer developments refer both to geometric and other models.) You can also see pictures of plastic fuselage, wing mould and technological equipment. According to them, the wing will be all-in-one, monospar one. The wing skin and the spar web will be made of fiberglass plastic, spar caps from coal-plastic.

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